What is hyperactivity disorder and distractions? ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental behavioral disorder that affects the parts of the brain responsible for planning, focusing, performing tasks and inhibiting response.
Its symptoms vary according to its type, there is the type that is dominated by lack of attention, and there is the type that is dominated by hyperactivity and impulsivity, and there is the complex type in which all the symptoms of the previous two types appear.
It may be noticed that the child with inattention forgets his daily activities, does not pay attention to the details of things and makes mistakes resulting from neglect
He is easily distracted by noise or stimuli and finds it difficult to focus continuously, and avoids starting activities that require him to continue mental focus and even forgets to bring the necessary tools to accomplish them.
In addition, he does not follow instructions, fails to complete required activities, has difficulty organizing tasks, or appears to be unable to hear when spoken to directly.
It may also be noted that a child with hyperactivity and impulsivity talks a lot, expresses boredom with his hands or feet, or moves a lot on the chair.
He leaves his place when he is expected to stay there, runs or climbs a lot at inappropriate times and places, has difficulty playing quietly, interrupts the conversation of others or breaks into their activities, rushes to answer before completing the question, or it is difficult for him to wait for his turn.
How is a child Diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
It is possible that these symptoms appear in many normal children, but the basis of the diagnosis is not only based on the presence of symptoms, but also on their severity and persistence and their negative impact on daily life.
To clarify the mechanism of the disorder, we point out here that the parts of the nervous system communicate with each other and with the rest of the body’s organs through neurotransmitters.
For example, some neurotransmitters play a role in muscle contraction, some in the delivery of sensations, while others
It plays a role in the ways of thinking or basic brain skills required to perform the tasks known as the executive functions of the brain.
ADHD is described as impairment or delay in the acquisition of executive functions of the brain attributable to an abnormality
In the delivery of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the frontal lobes of the brain and other circuits.
Examples of the executive functions of the brain are: working memory related to time management, organization, planning, setting priorities, prolonging attention, curbing emotions, adaptation, flexibility, and others.
Working memory is defined as the ability to temporarily hold information in the brain’s memory, process it and link it to memories in long-term memory, and then think ahead when performing difficult tasks.
People with the disorder suffer from the fact that their working memory is blinking or blinking, information or parts of it are lost, and the information is not retained for a sufficient period to allow processing and linking it with the rest of the existing information to make the appropriate decision, which leads to different types of problems.
For example, when reading a text, someone who has poor working memory will lose what he read at the beginning of the text when it reaches its end, which leads to not linking all the information together and not understanding or understanding the text differently.
Also, the sufferer may not remember what was said to him at the beginning of the conversation when reaching its end and does not link the speech together or fully comprehend it, which leads to a lack of a correct understanding of the intent of the speech.
People with the disorder also suffer from poor time management, which results in spending long times in some of the less important tasks and not planning enough time for the most important tasks.
Examples of poor time management problems include being late for appointments, such as late attendance at school or virtual attendance at school, delay in completing school assignments, and delay in solving test questions.
ADHD is not a single disorder as symptoms vary according to the deficits in executive functions of the brain and their severity, and this may help explain the varying response to drug therapy and the need for an individual cognitive behavioral treatment plan.
It has been observed in studies that there is a slow electrical brain in the frontal lobes of the brains of children with disorder that appears during the performance of tasks, and one type of rays has found atrophy or smallness in the parts of the frontal lobes of those with disorder compared to their healthy peers. It was also observed that a group of symptoms similar to those that appear in ADHD in children who are exposed to traumatic brain injury and who have some neurological diseases that affect the frontal lobe of the brain.
As mentioned earlier, it is because some symptoms may resemble the behavior of normal individuals, which leads to the suspicion that the child’s behavior is due to negligence, bad manners, or escaping from responsibility.
This proves beyond doubt after decades of scientific research and studies that ADHD is a real neurological disease like all other organic diseases, which is currently believed to be a disorder whose roots arise from the interaction between human biological, psychological and environmental social causes.
Is the condition of the patient with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treatable?
The diagnosis requires a specialized doctor to conduct a diagnostic interview and a neurological examination, where the experienced doctor can know the symptoms of the disorder clinically and make the necessary measures and interpret them in order to ensure the diagnosis of the disorder and its severity and the presence of risk factors for infection and remove the factor of organic or mental disorders that may be similar to it such as traumatic brain injury and other diseases Or learning and language disorders, sleep and mood disorders, vision or hearing disorders and others.
It should be noted that the condition of the person with this disorder increases his susceptibility to effective treatment when it is detected early, which causes a radical change in the affected child’s behavior, as he clearly notices an improvement in his academic, behavioral and psychological performance after treatment. and the delay in its treatment may lead to severe complications, severe damage and cumulative suffering, especially at the academic level, with the progress of school stages, which become increasingly difficult with time, and the secondary psychological and behavioral complications resulting from the disorder are intractable and difficult to treat with the passage of years.
Dr. Osama Al Shukr – Consultant Pediatric Neurologist at AGH Dammam, concludes his talk by describing some of the services he provides to children with ADHD in his clinic:
1- Accurate diagnosis of the disorder and identification of disorders that may accompany it.
2- Develop an individual treatment plan that includes medicine therapy, family and educational counseling.
3- Communicate with class teachers to help diagnose and guide them to learning patterns and appropriate dealing with the child with the disorder to control his behavior and ways to develop and increase his academic achievement.
In addition to other special consultations that are compatible with the distance study programs for the child with this disorder.
Source: (Automated translation/Original Arabic blog)
Dr. Osamah Rajab Elshuckr – Consultant Pediatric Neurologist